Very little has changed in the structure and ethos of Indian policing since 1861, the year in which the Police Act was passed. The 1861 Act remains the statute in place and the basis for police laws that govern policing in Indian states, despite an intervening 68 years of independence, and a progressive Constitution with human rights, democracy, and rule of law at its heart. While democracy is fully embedded, there has been no systemic fundamental reform of the police in independent India. Women had little place in colonial policing. At a current national average of 6%, they are only very slowing fi nding some subordinated space in the establishment. For more, read CHRI's recent report, Rough Roads to Equality: Women Police in South Asia.